NECROPOLIS-An Architectural Marvel

Introduction 

In the heart of the city of El Giza stands the Giza Pyramid Complex, Necropolis, comprising of 3 pyramids:  Khafre,  Menkaure, and Giza. Though each was made for a different pharaoh, their aggregate plan is cohesive and intentional, as the course of action of these structures is perhaps a portrayal of the Orion constellation. 
The Complex’s crown jewel is the Great Pyramid which is an enigma of technological puzzles. It was constructed from 2.5 million stone squares from across 500 miles in just 20 years which is especially stunning as they didn't have the utilization of wheels at that point.

Planning and surveying 

The Giza plateau is on entirely steady ground, comprising of nummulitic limestone from the purported Mokattam arrangement. However,  delving shafts and chambers on this hard ground are quite a hindrance for excavations. The Great Pyramid's corners aligned almost exactly with the points of a compass with a deviation of just 2' 28''. The tombs are aligned north-south to a precision of up to 0.05 degrees. Even utilizing current technology, the exactness development of a structure of this size is incomprehensible. 

Materials and construction 

Coarse Limestone was used for the core brickwork while Fine limestone was used for the outside packaging stones, and for coating the entries and chambers.
The laborers might have done the quarrying of stones by building low mud dividers all around the base and cutting diverts in a lattice design over the surface. They would have filled the channels with water and marked the level it came to. Then a jutting stone would have been scaled to the level indicated, and any depressions formed would have been filled with stones to make a completely leveled surface. 

Masonry work 

The joints made were precisely one-fifth of an inch. In the joints, two varieties of mortar were utilized in the pyramid of Khufu. The external stones were bound together with an incredibly slim gypsum mortar which solidified like concrete. For the internal center stones, a blend of gypsum, lime, and sand was used. Special stones capable of grappling the pyramid body to the bedrock. The establishment sections had a slight slope of 2-3° inwards. The developers gave exceptional consideration to the foundations ensuring efficient management of heat extension and seismic tremor. 

Conclusion 

Egyptian pyramids are the most exceptional engineering accomplishment in the world. For centuries, the pyramids were the tallest structures on the planet. Their architectural and aesthetic superiority even amazes the humans in the 21st century. However, the Egyptians didn't think they were building testaments to the living.  Their work was always intended for the spirits of the dead. They believed that a second self-called the ka lived within every human being which after their death enjoyed eternal life.  Nevertheless, the ancient Egyptians set the stage for the hyper-advanced civilization we live in now.



WRITTEN BY:-Samit Ranjan Patro


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